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Methane Hydrate | Methane Digesters For Fuel Gas and Fertilizer
 

 

Methane Digesters

Quick Facts...

  • Anaerobic fermentation or digestion is the most promising process for converting organic materials to methane and other gases.
  • A simple apparatus can be constructed to produce bio-gas.
  • Bio-gas usually contains about 60 to 70 percent methane, 30 to 40 percent carbon dioxide, and other gases.
  • The heat value of raw bio-gas is approximately half that of natural gas under typical Colorado conditions.
  • Take precautions when processing and handling the gas. It is highly explosive and difficult to detect.

http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/CoopExt/PUBS/FARMMGT/05002.html

Methane Digesters For Fuel Gas and Fertilizer, With Complete Instructions For Two Working Models -- by L. John Fry, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93103, © 1973, Eighth Printing (out of print). Excellent manual on making and using methane -- biogas. Fry developed his techniques while running a pig farm in South Africa, designing the first full scale displacement methane plant. Good information on integrating biogas production with gardening and farming, and with pond-culture food production. Designs for a Sump Digester using 55-gal oil drums and an Inner Tube Digester. With thanks to Kirk McLoren.
 

Farming for energy: Cow Power - http://www.auri.org/news/ainjul01/05page.htm

Kinetic Studies of Biogas Evolved from Water hyacinth

ABSTRACT

 Water Hyacinth - a native of South America is abundantly found in India, Bangladesh, South East Asia and in the Philippines Islands. Under favorable conditions a growth rate as high as 17.5 metric tons of wet Water hyacinth per hectare per day has been reported. Due to vegetative reproduction it spreads rapidly clogging drainage, ditches, shedding out other vegetations and interfering with shipping and recreation.

The concept of using aquatic plants for conversion to energy (methane) is gaining attention in tropical and sub tropical regions of the world where warm climate is conductive to the plant growth through out the year. Anaerobic digestion of organic matter is the oldest method for disposing the waste. The anaerobic digestion of animal, agricultural and industrial wastes has been widely studied. However, very little work has been done using aquatic plants particularly Water Hyacinth.

The present paper deals with the kinetics of gas produced from Water Hyacinth. The study was done in a batch fed digester. Attempts have been made to reach at an optimum condition for the production of maximum amount of gas by the addition of lower volatile fatty acids, Cow dung and inoculums etc. The important and useful results that was drawn from the study is that we can run the biogas plants even in the cold winter nights by using certain additives. After digestion of Water Hyacinth inoculums can be used as good manure for soil fertility, which is free from harmful chemicals, which is a boon for sustainable agriculture practices.

 

INTRODUCTION TO METHANE GAS PRODUCTION - AL RUTAN

In 1973 when the Arab oil embargo hit the US, there was intense interest in developing renewable sources of energy. Then the political climate changed and the thought of being energy independent as a nation was dropped. This nation is now paying the price for such a foolish political decision.

The momentum of the social revolution of the 60's spilled over into the decade of the 70's. The thrust of the thinking of many was still, "Let's do it our way." Those dedicated to developing renewable energy received approval from many, even if financial backing for developing concepts was less than needed. The focus on the possibilities of harnessing solar radiation, wind power, alcohol fuel production and methane gas fuel was driving the imaginations of many. But none of the efforts to develop renewable sources of energy went without challenges. The entrenched
energy companies felt threatened.

Signs appeared on gasoline pumps everywhere, "Our Gas Contains No Alcohol." These statements were meant to deliberately mislead public thinking. They were led to believe that if gasoline contains alcohol, it must be bad! Actually, the opposite is true. The burning characteristics of gasoline are significantly improved when mixed with ethanol. Old Timers will remember the days when the highest grade of gasoline was labeled "Ethyl." (sometimes this refers to Tetra Ethyl Lead, but don't forget alcoline, agrol, and other brands of Gasohol sold in the 30's and 40's). Gasoline retailers no longer propagate the lie that their gasoline contains no alcohol, because gasoline mixed with ethanol is required in many States for reduced air pollution during the winter driving months, as a replacement for MTBE, a known ground water pollutant.

The fallout from the confrontation with big business was that the efforts of many to establish a foothold with projects of renewable energy came to naught. This is particularly true of the on-farm alcohol fuel movement and to a lesser extent with on-farm methane gas production from animal manure. In the late 70's and early 80's there were hundreds upon hundreds of on-farm alcohol plants throughout the US. Right now companies such as ADM are manufacturing huge amounts of ethanol but none of it is coming from on-farm locations as far as we know.

With methane gas production, the picture is somewhat different. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, publishes a booklet titled, "Methane Recovery From Animal Manures - The Current Opportunities Casebook." It is prepared by Philip D Lusk who is with Resource Development Associates in Washington DC. This is an outstanding publication because it covers all aspects of the challenge to harness the process of anaerobic fermentation. And it lists the details of 23 on-farm projects scattered through the nation that are operating successfully. Most are dairy farms.

Methane recovery from organic waste is appealing for several reasons. One is that the "raw" material is just laying around waiting for someone to do something with it. Unlike alcohol which has to be grown first as a starch grain and then processed, animal manure is "coming at you" if you have animals - whether you want it or not. It only makes sense to convert this "difficult resource" into something that is not only "socially acceptable" but also very profitable.

For instance, Fairgrove Farms in Sturgis, Michigan, milks 720 head. The manure from this herd is conveyed to a digester. The biogas produced fuels a caterpillar generator. The generator produces for the power grid in excess of $140.00 worth of electricity every 24 hours. So the farm receives from the local electrical utility a check in excess of $4,000.00 each month. Actually, it is probably more at the present time because this was the figure four years ago when Al Rutan visited the farm.

Producing biogas from animal manure is like making bread, beer or wine. All are examples of the process of fermentation. And it is obvious to anyone who has experience that these skills are an art as well as a science. Anyone can bake bread or make wine. But to be really good at these skills requires common sense and sensitivity to the parameters of nature working to succeed. Working with manure is similar. One cannot
treat it like "shit" and expect the best results. It takes an abundance of common sense and sensitivity to what the methagenic organisms require to achieve the best results.

Submitted by:
Al Rutan Research
<www.methane-gas.com>


Methane, Biogas, or Gobar Gas (Gobar is the Nepali term for manure) is made by the anaerobic (in the absence of oxygen) digestion of manure and plant life. The purpose is to convert this manure into methane to use as cooking fuel. One method is to use a circular pit made of concrete, that is sealed and manure is added over time. Pipes lead from this container into the house, where gas is emitted at the cooking location. Residue from the combustion process comes out at a different location in a concentrated form and is used for fertilizer. Human waste may also be used as the bacteria is killed in the combustion process. See the Glossary for terms and definitions.

Methane is a gas made up of one molecule of carbon and four molecules of hydrogen. It is the major component of the "natural" gas used in many homes for cooking and heating. It is odorless, colorless, and yields about 1,000 British Thermal Units (Btu) [252 kilocalories (kcal)] of heat energy per cubic foot (0.028 cubic meters) when burned. Natural gas is a fossil fuel that was created eons ago by the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials. It is often found in association with oil and coal.

The same types of anaerobic bacteria that produced natural gas also produce methane today. Anaerobic bacteria are some of the oldest forms of life on earth. They evolved before the photosynthesis of green plants released large quantities of oxygen into the atmosphere. Anaerobic bacteria break down or "digest" organic material in the absence of oxygen and produce "biogas" as a waste product. (Aerobic decomposition, or composting, requires large amounts of oxygen and produces heat.) Anaerobic decomposition occurs naturally in swamps, water-logged soils and rice fields, deep bodies of water, and in the digestive systems of termites and large animals. Anaerobic processes can be managed in a "digester" (an airtight tank) or a covered lagoon (a pond used to store manure) for waste treatment. The primary benefits of anaerobic digestion are nutrient recycling, waste treatment, and odor control. Except in very large systems, biogas production is a highly useful but secondary benefit.

Biogas produced in anaerobic digesters consists of methane (50%-80%), carbon dioxide (20%-50%), and trace levels of other gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen sulfide. The relative percentage of these gases in biogas depends on the feed material and management of the process. When burned, a cubic foot (0.028 cubic meters) of biogas yields about 10 Btu (2.52 kcal) of heat energy per percentage of methane composition. For example, biogas composed of 65% methane yields 650 Btu per cubic foot (5,857 kcal/cubic meter). http://www.eren.doe.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/ab5.html

Electricity from cow dung
By G.S. Dhillon

IN a welcome move PEDA, the nodal agency of the Punjab Government for undertaking development of non-conventional sources of power, has embarked on the utilisation of cow dung or the cattle waste originating from the dairy units in the Haebowal complex in Ludhiana, for the production of electricity, in addition to organic manure.

A modern plant is proposed to be put up which with an initial investment of around Rs 10 crore will supply about 1 MW of power, in addition to yielding organic manure.

In the Haebowal complex there are about 200 private dairy units meeting the milk needs of the city’s population. The cattle waste or cow dung resulting from these dairy units are causing pollution problems. Most of the cow dung is “washed down” into the Budha Nullah on whose bank these dairy units are located.

The proposed scheme of PEDA will be putting up a state-of-the-art plant which has not been adopted in the country before. It is proposed to discuss the “improved mode” of anaerobic digestion of cattle waste (cow dung) in this write-up.

Gobar gas plants:

In the presently sponsored models of biogas units, both for “family scale” and the “community scale” units, the mode used is “mesophilic” which works at temperatures around 30°C to 40°C and the consortium bacteria gives better efficiency in the above temperature range. If the temperature drops below, as is the case in winter months, these units stop producing biogas. In this mode the detention period is very lary, so vessel or digestor has to have a large capacity.

In the current models used, as both acidic and methagenoic stages which require alkaline environment takes place in one vessel, the whole process is very sensitive and the acid boiling conditions occur most often. The biogas produced is also stored in the same vessel, so problems result and the conversion efficiency of solids is low and so is the calorific value of the gas produced which requires a special burning unit.

Thermophilic mode:

In this mode the consortium of bacteria deployed for bio-degradation of solids is different from that deployed in the mesophilic mode. This bacteria work at higher temperatures of 50°C to 60°C and operate at a much faster rate and with better efficiency of solid digestion. The control provided in this mode is better than the other mode working at a lower temperature range i.e. mesophilic mode.

The detention period required is also smaller, so the size of reactor is smaller. Usually separate vessels are used to accomplish both acidic and alkaline stages in different vessels and the gas produced from each stage is collected and stored separately. The gas obtained is mainly carbon dioxide and separation of this gas improves the quality and calorific value of the gas.

To improve the quality of produced gas, it is scrubbed to remove hydrogen sulphide gas present which imparts obnoxious odour (rotten eggs). The improved gas has comparable characteristics to that of the LPG fuel and the same burners can be used for the so-improved biogas.

From the collected cow dung, the first operation involved is removal of dirt, sand, stones, bricks, etc. before loading the digestor, which is suitably insulated to preserve the temperature of the process. For this removal a rotary drum sieve is utilised. The slurry comprises carbohydrates, proteins and fats, which are worked upon by the consortium of bacteria to produce biogas comprising carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane and traces of hydrogen sulphide, etc. The ambient range of pH required to prevail in the mix is between 6.2 to 7.8.

At the first stage, the digestion of solids into fatty acids takes place which are later worked upon by the methagenic bacteria into the methane gas. If the latter process proceeds at a slower rate, then there is a gradual accumulation of the fatty acids and drop of pH value occurs leading to acidic conditions prevailing which, in turn, needing buffering action to restore the alkaline environment.

The effluent from the process contains a large amount of water, in addition to particles which would produce manure. So the effluents need to be dewatered for obtaining manure and this is accomplished in the screw press and solids are recovered from the effluent. Thereafter, the liquid is aerobically stabilised before disposal. The effluent flowing out conforms to the standards set by the pollution control agency. The manure obtained is aerobically stabilised and provides an ideal soil conditioner and organic fertiliser.

Power generation is carried out by using the biogas obtained as fuel in compression ignited internal combustion engines which operate entirely on the biogas. The engines are coupled to the AC generators to produce electricity.

Conclusion:

This mode is regarded as eco-friendly because if the methane resulting from anaeorobic digestion of cow dung while composting is allowed to escape to atmosphere, it would add to the accumulative green house gases but when burnt it produces carbon dioxide which results in the abatement of climatic changes. The unit being set up at Ludhiana, if successful, would lead to setting up many similar units in other towns of Punjab. The experiment being carried out at Ludhiana is thus a trend-setter.


History of Biogas Development

The pioneer of biogas in Nepal was father B.R Sauboll, a Belgian teacher at Godavari St. Xavier's school. He built a demonstration plant in 1955. In 1968 Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) built a plant for an exhibition in Kathmandu. The Department of Agriculture installed 250 biogas plants during the fiscal year of 1975/76. The Agriculture Development Bank of Nepal (ADB/N) offered interest free loans for the installation of biagas plants. In 1974, Development and Consulting Service (DCS) built four biogas plants according to KVIC design. Gobar Gas and Agriculture Equipment Development Company Pvt. Ltd. was formed in 1977 with joint investment of the United Mission to Nepal (UMN), ADB/N and Nepal Fuel Corporation (which later on merged into the Timber Corporation of Nepal) based on DCS biogas extension organization. As it was difficult to introduce new technology, biogas in rural areas programme of the company was not encouraging in comparison to national potentialities. However, research on various design of biogas plant such as floating steel drum design, concrete fixed dome design, pre-cased tunnel design, plastic bag biodigester, ferrocement gas holders, brick mortar dome, mud dome were tested and experimented. However, fixed dome design is the only one recognized design and became more popular in Nepal. http://www.panasia.org.sg/nepalnet/technology/biogas.html

THE BIOMASS ENERGY FOUNDATION

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Dedicated to Promoting Biomass Energy -
particularly pyrolysis, gasification
and alternate fuels ... http://www.webpan.com/BEF/

 

COMMERCIALISATION OF BIOGAS IN NEPAL 

Biogas technology is becoming one of the reliable alternative energy sources in Nepal. As a result more than 48500 biogas plants have been installed in the country. However, it is only about 3.7% of its technical potentials. Biogas technology has been commercially introduced since the establishment of Gobar Gas Tatha Krishi Yantra Vikash (P) Ltd. in the year 1977. Various research have been carried out in designing and developing a biogas plant, biogas appliances, alternative feedstocks, maximising gas production especially in winter months and end use applications of gas and slurry. Even though these technologies have not came into practice and are limited only in papers, due to which the progress were not attractive as the planners planned. For commercialisation of biogas plants in Nepal, this paper has analysed potentiality of biogas plants in the country, sources and mechanisms of funding, construction capacity of the companies and users buying capacity with cost calculations. It has also highlighted some biogas promotional activities such as development and distribution of extension and promotion materials, marketing and slurry extension programme. It has focused on research and development, training, quality control and monitoring and evaluation of the programme. It has also highlighted the importance of co-ordination between its partners such as Biogas Companies, Nepal Biogas Promotion Group and other active NGOs, Biogas Appliances Manufacturers, Banks, BSP and AEPC with their clear responsibilities for the success of the programme. Ultimately, emphasis has been given for introducing a community trust fund concept, diversified end use applications of gas as well as slurry and integrated approach of biogas system for commercialisation of the technology in the country. In this way conclusions and recommendations are presented.

Internalising Environmental Benefits Of Anaerobic Digestion Of Pig Slurry In Norfolk (UK) - Rachel Boyd 

An Introduction to BIOGAS - Beginners Guide to BIOGAS - Paul Harris, The University of Adelaide

Picture of Marc with Methane Digestor

In the interest of maintaining self sufficiency in fuel, EcoGenics has developed and built a methane digester capable of handling 1.5 tons of animal waste and producing varying amounts of "unscrubbed" methane at 540 to 700 BTU per cubic food, within an initial detention time period of 36 to 48 hours.


The digester design is a low cost semi-underground, cylindrical tank-type installation with baffles. Solar heating, heat injection via immersed coils and structural insulation allow for rapid decomposition of the waste product slurry. 

The gas product is captured with a series of "bag"-type storage units as an adjunct to the digester. In keeping with the closed loop design of the facility, the digester supernatants derived from the resulting slurry, are used as nutrients for the algae and ponds located within the Biosphere. Also, the solid fractions of the digester waste stream are suitable for composting or for direct application as a high quality fertilizer \ soil amendment. - http://www.dabney.com/ecogenics/digest.html

 

Good news from the Bisofer Warrior.

The Flemish gorvornment gave a green light for my new project concerning
Anaerobic Digestion.  You can find a summary in the attachment.  The project
will start at the end of the year and will last (in the first instance) for
two years.  Whith the approval of this project, the Belgian government gives
us a signal that they also want to see biogas plants in Belgium.

Let's say we expect that, with this project, new initiatives will come up
within the anaerobic digestion issue. The realisation of biogas plants
within the Belgian Food Processing Industry will be organised by
Studiebureel “flos campi” of Eng. Wouter Platteau.  A co-operative
organisation consisting of financial groups, food processing companies,
waste processing companies, farmer groups, slaughter-houses, etc. will be
set up.  Per region, the waste of different companies and farmers will be
used in the biogas plant.  The situation will be partially comparable to the
one in Denmark, only in specific situations we’ll have to make a
international exportable product.

This co-operative company still finds itself in a embryonic stadium.  You’ll
hear from it in later stadium. But we are sure of a positive evolution in
Belgium.  The government now pushes to implement this technology within the
Belgian companies.  The electricity prices for green energy (from biogas
plants) now reaches 0,15 Euro !!

Please don't hesitate to contact me if you have comments or questions.

Finally I can tell you all that I'm very glad my work is being appreciated
by the Belgian government and I can tell you : the one who doesn't give up,
wins! (it's dogged does it tell's my translator programm)

Be well.
Wouter Platteau
Projectmanager & BISOFER Warrior


****************************
Wouter Platteau
bvba Johan Vanacker
Studiebureel "flos campi"
Kouterweg 45
8800 Roeselare
GSM:    0477 709130
e-mail: wouter.platteau@gmx.net

The most efficient process of capturing energy from manure is through anaerobic digestion. Constructed digesters capture methane which has a similar energy value to natural gas. In addition, the process utilizes little of the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, which has additional value in a fertilizer market. Currently, utilities will not pay energy-producing farmers the going rate for farm generated electricity. Producers can still benefit from this energy source if their on-farm use exceeds their on-farm energy production. http://www.fb.com/issues/analysis/manure.html

Wisconsin Electric Power Co. said Friday that it will begin purchasing power from a facility being built near Shawano that uses cow manure to help generate electricity as part of its growing renewable-energy program. http://www.jsonline.com/bym/news/may00/manure06050500a.asp

Environomics Designer: Manure Biogas Digestion Systems "Turning Waste into Profits" http://waste2profits.com/
If your property included a 20-acre parcel that had Crude Oil beneath it, of course you'd pump it up and sell it. If you think about it, in many ways treating the manure your livestock generates like a commodity is better for you than a Crude Oil field.  First of all the crude oil field doesn't exist, while there's no question of the manure's existence.  And even if you had the oil field, as long as you keep livestock you'll be up to here in manure. Manure is a natural byproduct of your primary business, and it's not hidden under the ground, nor do you have to extract it from the bodies of your livestock; on the contrary, they eagerly deposit at your feet on a daily basis. Like Crude Oil, from manure you can produce heat and electricity as well as fertilizer and fiber; the profits from which will more than pay for your initial investment.


The purpose of this site is to promote anaerobic digestion as an environmentally friendly method of waste reduction and energy recovery. Anaerobic digestion is a biological process where organic waste is broken down, or digested by bacteria. During the digestion process the bacteria produce mainly methane, which can be easily collected and used as a fuel for cooking and heating. After the organic material is digested, it becomes a high quality fertilizer for use in organic gardening. http://www.anaerobicdigestion.com/

Automotive LPG Fuel (and Methane)

In 1987 I embarked on a project to convert my car to run on LPG (aka propane) instead of gasoline. What little I knew at that time indicated it would be a great motor fuel. I built the car in 1989/1990, and wrote it up as a small booklet, "Do-It-Yourself Automotive LPG Conversion", and amazingly, sold about 1200 copies in two years mostly through the Real Goods Trading Company (Ukiah, CA). Now it's November 1998, I'm still driving the car regularly, with no problems, though the engine valves should be redone, with about 106,000 miles on the engine.

Below is the original booklet, updated in Mar 94, Apr 97, Nov 98, plus additional accumulated technical information. For a fuel that's been around since the 1920's there's shockingly little available information.

My conclusion to the question, is LPG any good as a motor fuel? An unqualified yes. It's nearly non-polluting (mainly carbon dioxide, and less of that per-mile) and cheap. But not profitable for oil companies. Read on if you care. There might even be enough information for you to duplicate my efforts, for the very few people who care. http://www.wps.com/LPG/

LPG (Liqufied Petroleum Gas) is a petroleum derived, colorless gass, typically comprised of primarily either propane, butane, or a combination of the two. LPG has been and continues to be the most widely used alternative motor fuel to gasoline and diesel on a worldwide basis. The acceptance it has enjoyed over the years ensures the place of LPG in clean air scenarios worldwide. Currently, (1992) there are over 500,000 vehicles using propane gas in the United States, most are spark-ignition engines adopted to use either propane or gasoline, and over three million worldwide. http://www.wps.com/LPG/WVU-review.html

Updating biogas technology - By G.S. Dhillon
DURING early 1970s the government decided to give thrust to the generation of gobar gas (renamed after 1982 as biogas) by anaerobic digestion of gobar (cow dung) for meeting fuel needs of rural population. This mode was expected to bring economic uplift and social welfare of the rural sector. Both family size and community size models were launched and appropriately subsidised. The task for the development and propagation of the mode was entrusted to PAU and the Department of Agriculture, Punjab.

DESIRED FUTURE STRUCTURE OF THE BIOGAS SECTOR IN NEPAL  - Privatization can play an important role in the biogas sector in Nepal to tap the potential in a fast, inexpensive and qualitative way. Conditions related to the quality of the biogas plant and the provision of investment subsidy have to be issued by a 'National Biogas Centre. This Centre has to be established at central level. Investment subsidy creates not only the necessary demand for biogas plants, but it is also a very effective means to regulate the privatization.
 

Biomass and alternative fuels in engines

The Energy Group has for over two decades been involved in the development of the major renewable energy sources of wind, hydro, solar pv and biomass. A systems approach has invariably been adopted with emphasis upon component interaction, end-use requirements, and the possibility of application in combination with other sources of energy (e.g. wind/diesel). A list of websites dealing with biomass energy technologies is available. 

There has been a steady research interest over many years into the use of alternative biomass fuels in i.c. engines, including biogas, wood gas, biodiesel and ethanol. Both practical and theoretical work has also been done on other engine cycles, such as Stirling engines and the Atkinson cycle as alternative means of using a range of fuels and also improving efficiency of the combustion of conventional fuels. There is a desire to respond to the increasing opportunity for the use of advanced gasification of wood and other materials for power production.

David Fulford has had a background in overseas development, setting up a family scale anaerobic digestion project in Nepal, which has since proved very successful. He has specialized at Reading in a range of activities in the biomass energy field.

Graham Rice, although now retired from teaching, is able to offer the expertise he has gained over many years of research into alternative fuels in engines and in the design manufacture and testing of Stirling engines. http://www.rdg.ac.uk/energy/prisbiom.htm

background on the gas digesters - Preface to the Series

[this is the letter which prompted the author to write the series -ms]

JB> Please, please be as specific as you can... seems like information
JB> about Methane Digesters is few and far between.  I studied under Rich
JB> Merrill when I was in college and that's how I got turned on to the
JB> idea.  This project is really important to the future of small farms
JB> as it is the only way to heat greenhouses cheaply and efficiently in a
JB> rural enviroment.  And yes I have access to all the raw materials I'll
JB> need.
"Latest Progress in Anaerobic Digestion," by Phil Lusk, in BioCycle
Magazine, July 1999.  See
http://www.environmental-expert.com/magazine/biocycle/july/article3.htm .

Centralised Manure Digestion Plant, CADDET energy technology record, updated
1999.  See http://194.178.172.86/register/datare/ccr01853.htm .

Anaerobic Digestion: Is It Right for Your Farm?, Cornell Cooperative
Extension Service, 1990.  Hard copy can be ordered through
http://www.cce.cornell.edu/publications/dairy.html .

Refurbish Langerwerf Dairy Anaerobic Digester, Western Regional Biomass
Energy Program, November 1998.  See
http://www.westbioenergy.org/refurbish.htm .

An Introduction to BIOGAS

If you are new to biogas/biofuel and anaerobic digestion for waste treatment these pages are intended to assist you. If you only need some simple information the first couple of links will be most useful, while the later pages are to help those considering starting a digester project.There is also a safety page

All information is provided without warranty and should not be used for commercial purposes.
If you do build a digester please remember that you are dealing with bacteria and (hopefully) flamable/explosive gas, so reasonable safety precautions MUST be used. Seek professional advice for any commercial project!

A GLOSSARY is now available to assist you with all the new terms you encounter

Any suggestions/questions are welcome, and may be made by e-mail to Paul Harris.

Paul Harris
Agronomy & Farming Systems
Faculty of Sciences
Adelaide University, Roseworthy Campus, AUSTRALIA 5371
Ph    : +61 8 8303 7880
Fax   : +61 8 8303 7979
mailto:paul.harris@adelaide.edu.au
http://www.roseworthy.adelaide.edu.au/~pharris

Please note that this tour accesses sites authored by a number of people in different locations, I gratefully acknowledge their work but the tour cannot claim credit or responsibility! http://www.roseworthy.adelaide.edu.au/~pharris/biogas/beginners

 

BIOGAS FROM THE SEA - German and Italian scientists are converting excess marine
algae from the Venice Lagoon into biogas, a versatile, clean-
burning fuel. Researchers in Calabria are cultivating
phytoplankton in shallow sea water ponds. In both cases, with the
help of the sun, biomass is created and fermented into biogas. The
potential for generating fuel from algae culture is tremendous.
Worldwide there are more than 18,750 miles of coastal desert areas
suitable for such energy plantations.

Biogas in India: A Sustainable Energy Success Story

Biogas means social benefits for women and children. Woman and children are the big winners in India where every year 200,000 families turn away from the traditional fireplace and have a biogas plant installed to provide energy for cooking and lighting.

A smoke-free and ash-free kitchen means women are no longer prone to lung and throat infections and can look forward to a longer life expectancy. In rural areas, where there is generally no electricity supply, the introduction of biogas has given women a sense of self-worth and time to engage in more activities outside the home.

Dung is no longer stored in the home but is fed directly into the biogas plant, along with toilet waste. As a result, standards of hygiene have improved, and the vegetable patch has gained a top quality fertilizer that guarantees a better crop.

More than 2 million biogas plants have been built in India so far. Almost 200,000 permanent jobs have been created for the male bread-winners of indian families. With a potential market for 30 plants attached to households with 3 cattle or more, the social and environmental advantages of biogas are only just beginning to be explored.

Biogas Products - Controls and equipment.

Biogas Resources - Equipment: Biogas flares, Biogas burners, Instrumentation
Capacity: Up to several thousands of cu.m./h of biogas

Biogas Technology - Biogas Production - In biogas plants liquid manure, fixed muck, agricultural wastes and waste products from slaughterhouses, food factories and from "green waste" can be fermented. Operational principle - The organic waste material is given to a septic tank, without air access. The micro organisms which produce the fermentation gas do not tolerate oxygen, and additionally no light has to penetrate into the digester or gas outlet. There the material is transferred into fermentation gas and high-quality fertilizer.

Odour removal at biogas plants - Many biogas plants have severe odour problems, and this may be a barrier for further extension and use of the technology. A Danish biogas plant "Vester Hjermitslev Energiselskab" has good experience in eliminating the odour problems with a BBK-biofilter. The biogas plant produces biogas out of fishsludge (sludge from waste water treatment plants at fish factories) and liquid manure from pigs and cattle. They used to have a traditional bark filter to remove the bad odours, but the results were so poor and the complains from the neighbours so numerous that they had to find a new solution of the problem. Otherwise the plant would have to close down. The solution turned out to be a BBK-biofilter dimensioned to clean 7000 m3 air per hour, which is able to remove all the annoying odours totally.

Yorkshire Electricity Group - Biogas is the term used for the gas made from the natural decomposition of organic (plant or animal) materials. It is produced when the materials are digested by bacteria in a situation where little or no air is present (anaerobic digestion).

DAVE PAXTON'S BIOGAS SERIES - To start it all off I guess I should give a little bit of background on the gas digesters. Prior to and during WW2 there were sporadic attempts at producing and using methane gas in digesters but no organized research. After the war the Chinese and Indian peoples developed the gas to help their energy deficient countries cope with its needs. I have found no written papers on the Chinese developments but I have heard tourists talking about wagons of farm goods being driven around by what appears to be a lawnmower (2 wheels on an axle driven by a small 1 cyl engine, the whole thing having "handlebars" to rotate it in any direction) instead of a horse or water buffalo. These engines are fueled by a big bag of biogas that usually bobbles back and forth on top of the produce. I have no info on the Chinese biogas digesters. However, the Indian government has established the Gobar Gas Research Station at Ajitmal, India. The "guru" of gobar gas is a gentleman by the name of Ram Bux Singh and may possibly even still be doing research at this time. India has 2 sacred cows for every one person. Gobar is their words which if interpreted would come out "cow dung" (to be polite). So if someone refers to you as a gobar slinger you will know what they mean (grin). Ram Bux Singh has written many papers on the subject and the Gobar Gas Research Station has released booklets and papers but I have yet to find any of these available here in the U.S. Many people have picked up the ball and tried to run with it. A fellow in Africa by the name of Fry had one of the worlds biggest pig farms and he had some interesting results in digesting the waste in that it cut down disease, flies and smell of his operation and helped his farm produce better crops to feed his pigs.

EPA's Landfill Methane Outreach Program - Landfill gas emitted from decomposing garbage is a reliable and renewable fuel option that remains largely untapped at most landfills across the United States, despite its many benefits. 

Making Your Own Fuel - Making fuel isn't just for the big oil companies. You CAN make your own! Hydrogen gas, Alcohol and Methane gas can be made at home for fun and profit. Well... its not very much fun and there isn't much profit in it, but it can be done.

Methane (Biogas) from Anaerobic Digesters
Methane is a gas made up of one molecule of carbon and four molecules of
hydrogen. It is the major component of the "natural" gas used in many homes
for cooking and heating. It is odorless, colorless, and yields about 1,000
British Thermal Units (Btu) [252 kilocalories (kcal)] of heat energy per
cubic foot (0.028 cubic meters) when burned. Natural gas is a fossil fuel
that was created eons ago by the anaerobic decomposition of organic
materials. It is often found in association with oil and coal.

http://www.eren.doe.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/ab5.html

Basic Research evaluated and initiated development on several promising
designs of biological anaerobic digestion processes that improved the rate
and yield of methane generation from biomass and waste feed stocks. Two
designs were developed for processing high-concentration, as-received
biomass feed stocks; and one design was developed for transforming soluble
organic feed stock into methane. The goal was to achieve methane yields
greater than 6 cubic feet per pound of dry matter at loading rates exceeding
0.5 lb/cu.ft. reactor/day. This goal was exceeded by both the Solids
Concentration (or SOLCON process, Patent No. 4,735,724, April 5, 1988,
developed by IGT and tested at the Walt Disney World Experimental Test Unit)
and the dry fermentation process developed and tested at laboratory pilot
scale by Cornell University using sorghum feed stock varieties (MN 1500 and
623xRio) that were developed by Texas A&M under GRI funding. Fundamental
research that supported this effort was provided by the University of
Florida. This technology was reported in 1986 as a Category E result.

http://www.gri.org/cgi-bin/re?url=http%3A//www.gri.org/pub/oldcontent/tech/r
srch/sum95/95res25.html


Anaerobic lagoons are perhaps the most trouble free, low maintenance systems
available for treatment of animal waste. This is particularly true in the
southern U.S.where winter temperatures are mild, permitting anaerobic
digestion the year around. The effluent from the digester is a valuable
source of nitrogen for plants that can be field applied for improved crop
production. Placing a cover over the lagoon for collecting biogas virtually
eliminates odor from the lagoon. The collected biogas, a byproduct of the
digestion process, is typically 60 to 70 percent methane that can be
utilized as a valuable energy resource. Limited experience indicates that
odor from field application of effluent from two cell covered lagoons is
much reduced from what might be expected when applying untreated or
uncovered lagoon effluent.

http://www.ctic.purdue.edu/core4/nutrient/manuremgmt/Paper31.html

The process by which anaerobic bacteria decompose organic matter into
methane, carbon dioxide, and a nutrient-rich sludge involves a step-wise
series of reactions requiring the cooperative action of several organisms.
In the first stage, a variety of primary producers (acidogens) break down
the raw wastes into simpler fatty acids. In the second stage, a different
group of organisms (methanogens) consume the acids produced by the
acidogens, generating biogas as a metabolic byproduct. On average, acidogens
grow much more quickly than methanogens. They are also much hardier
organisms, able to survive a broader range of temperature and pH conditions.

http://biorealis.com/digester/digestion.html

Methane is a gas made up of one molecule of carbon and four molecules of
hydrogen. It is the major component of the "natural" gas used in many homes
for cooking and heating. It is odorless, colorless, and yields about 1,000
Btu [252 kilocalories (kcal)] of heat energy per cubic foot (.028 cubic
meters) when burned. Natural gas is a fossil fuel that was produced eons ago
by the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials. It is often found in
association with oil and coal.

http://pages.prodigy.net/afmo/meth.htm

At first glance, the idea of generating methane gas has
considerable merit because it appears to offer at least a partial
solution to two pressing problems-the environmental crisis and the
energy shortage. Unfortunately, present-day large-scale methane
generation requires rather high investments in money and management
which considerably reduce the practicality of the idea for the
farmer. This Guide is intended to provide quantitative information
so that the feasibility of methane generation can be evaluated for
a given situation.

http://www.inform.umd.edu/EdRes/Topic/AgrEnv/ndd/watermgt/GENERATING_METHANE
_GAS_FROM_MANURE.html

Wisconsin Electric, Tinedale Farms converting animal waste to power

 

Dairy cows help produce enough electricity to power 150 homes - http://www.corporate-ir.net/ireye/ir_site.zhtml?ticker=wec&script=410&layout=7&item_id=128922

MILWAUKEE - Wisconsin Electric has reached an agreement with Ag Environmental Solutions, LLC to purchase renewable electricity generated from a manure digester facility located at Tinedale Farms, of Wrightstown, Wis. The facility is already under construction and will be owned and operated by Ag Environmental Solutions, LLC.

The farm has about 1,800 dairy cows. As the waste from the cows decomposes, it releases methane biogas. The manure digester will capture the gas and use it to fuel a small power plant that will produce 750 kilowatts; enough to power about 150 homes.

"I really like the fact that this is green energy," said Carl Theunis of Tinedale Farms. "Farmers know first-hand how important it is to take care of the environment. Many are operating multi-generational farms and want to protect the land and resources for the next generation. Green power revenue will enable agriculture to invest in technology to further enhance environmental stewardship."

The facility should be producing electricity by March of 2001 with future expansion possible. Tinedale Farms is located at 2768 Poplar St. in Wrightstown, just outside of Kaukauna.

"This plant is a win for everyone," said Kris Krause, Wisconsin Energy Corp. vice president of Environmental. "Methane is twenty times more potent as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. This is also an opportunity to support family farms in our state."

This manure digester will be a different technology than the one near Bonduel, Wis. that WE announced in May. The first of its kind in the state, the Bonduel plant has generated widespread praise from environmental groups and government for its ability to turn animal waste into green energy.

Wisconsin Electric Power Co., a subsidiary of Wisconsin Energy Corp., provides electric, natural gas and/or steam service to about 2.4 million people in southeastern Wisconsin (including the Milwaukee area), the Appleton area, the Prairie du Chien area, and portions of northeastern Wisconsin and Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. Visit the company's Web site at www.wisconsinelectric.com.

Editor's Note: Carl Theunis of Tinedale Farms can be reached at 920-532-4804.


Marine Sciences and Coastal Management - Centre for ... [new window]
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Digester BiogasBiogas ContainerChina BiogasBiogas I ... [new window]
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Summary: Biogas AT Information: BIOGAS Basics Framework Conditions Application and Product Development Costs and Benefits Program Implementation Country Reports Publications Internet links Imprint Contact Table of Contents Biogas plants constitute a widely..
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Biogas : The Indian NGO Experience/Soma Dutta, Ibra ... [new window]
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Renewable energy consulting: plant oil as fuel, bio ... [new window]
Summary: Consultig about renewable energies, biogas, jatropha information service and internet service
http://reinhard.henning.com/ - (Yahoo)
Biogas in Ulm [new window]
Summary: Siegfried Wucher Römerstr. 32 89077 Ulm 0731/37437 Die Biogastechnik ist wichtiges Element einer ganzheitlichen Landwirtschaft, die nicht nur wirtschaftliche Aspekte wie Kosten und Betriebsgewinn berücksichtigt, sondern ...
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Summary: Aktuelle Informationen zur Bioenergie...
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Beginners Guide to BIOGAS - Paul Harris, The Univer ... [new window]
Summary: If you are new to biogas/biofuel and anaerobic digestion for waste treatment these pages are intended to assist you. If you only need some simple information the first couple of
http://WWW.roseworthy.adelaide.edu.au/~pharris/bioga... - (LookSmart)
Energieagentur NRW - Clevere Energieerzeuung im Kre ... [new window]
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Biogas, Fuel Cells, And Hydrogen [new window]
Summary: The conversion of organic matter to some gaseous form has many advantages. A combustible low-grade gas, which still contains some air, can heat nearby locations at low cost. Biogas is ...
http://starfire.ne.uiuc.edu/ne201/course/topics/fuel_cells_and_hy droge... - (InfoSeek)
SOLAR-WIND-BIOGAS-BIOMASS: Solutions for the Enviro ... [new window]
Summary: Interactive, multimedia information resource tools covering all areas of renewable energy technologies, sustainable development and pollution control.
http://www.lior.be/ - (Yahoo)
INFO: Kommunikationer/Transporter - Biogas [new window]
Summary: Kommunikationer/Transporter. Redaktör för denna sida är Håkan Köhler, Miljöaktion Värmland, tfn/fax 054- 21 07 19. Synpunkter och tips välkomnas!..
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Green Pages - Index 9.5 : Bio Reactors [new window]
Summary:     Russian Federation Activated Sludge Biomass to Sulphur-Free Liquid Fuel Conversion Abirer-Systems (AS)    Germany Anaerob Biomass Recycling Reactor System for Organic Waste ...
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BIOGAS FROM THE SEA [new window]
Summary: 29 minutes/Grades 9-Adult Produced by Hans-Ernst Weitzel German and Italian scientists are converting excess marine algae from the Venice Lagoon into biogas, a versatile, clean- burning fuel. Researchers in ...
http://www.bullfrogfilms.com/catalog/11.html - (InfoSeek, LookSmart)
Biogas [new window]
Summary: Biogas Bei der Zersetzung von Biomasse entsteht Biogas. Es ist eine Mischung aus 55 bis 75 Prozent Methan, 27 bis 44 Prozent Kohlendioxid sowie kleineren Anteilen an Wasserstoff und Schwefelwasserstoff. Biogas kann zum Kochen und Heizen oder zur...
http://www.neckermann.de/umwelt/lexikon/biogas.html - (Yahoo)
Varec Vapor Control Inc. | Product Page Biogas [new window]
Summary: The market leader in advanced tank gauging & vapor recovery systems....
http://whessoevarec.com/products/catalog/envi.html - (AltaVista)
Energie aus Wind, Sonne, Biogas: Ökostrom f&uu ... [new window]
Summary: Montag, 23. November 1998, Seite 9 Chronik Energie aus Wind, Sonne, Biogas: Ökostrom für 100.000 Haushalte Erneuerbare Energieträger sollen - höchst ...
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Practically Green [new window]
Summary: provides research, consultancy and engineering to convert organic wastes into biogas , electricity and hot water (Co-generation of Heat and Power CHP ), compost and liquid
http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/terrace/ae198/ - (LookSmart, WebCrawler)
St Bede's School: Tanzania Link: BIOGAS DIGESTOR [new window]
Summary: - Research was carried out 1992 - Cows were bought and cow sheds built 1994 - Trenches were dug by both sets of students 1997 - The science lab was connected to the digestor 1998 - On going ...
http://www.stbedes.surrey.sch.uk/showcase/Tanzania/cow.htm - (InfoSeek)
DINO - Natur & Umwelt - Themen - Energiegewinnung - ... [new window]
Summary: DINO-Online - das Suchsystem fuer das deutschsprachige Internet. Grosser Webkatalog zu allen Themengebieten, Suchmaschinen, Web-Highlights. Immer aktuell!
http://www.dino-online.de/seiten/go11tegas.htm - (Yahoo)
OU Department of Landscape Architecture - LA Relate ... [new window]
Summary: University of Oklahoma Landscape Architecture. Internet Links. Professional Organizations. Environmental Organizations. Government Agencies....
http://www.ou.edu/architecture/dla/links/links.html - (AltaVista)
EVO - Biomasse [new window]
Summary: Als Biomasse im energietechnischen Sinn gelten alle pflanzlichen und tierischen Stoffe, aus denen Energie gewonnen werden kann. Eine Form dieser Energiegewinnung ist die CO2-neutrale Verbrennung von ...
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fmf-eng: Re: Biogas Report and OTEC Caribbean Ltd. [new window]
Summary: Jack Reynolds wrote: > > I will e-mail Mr. Archer of OTEC-Caribbean myself and explain my lapse in > communication and better judgement. I'm assuming it would be ok to ...
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Biogas [new window]
Summary: Fachverband Biogas e.V.
http://www.biogas.de/ - (Yahoo, InfoSeek)
BOXER-Infodienst: Regenerative Energie [new window]
Summary: Regenerative Energie: aktuelle Tagesmeldungen, Grundlagen, Daten, Hintergründe zu allen Bereichen, Termine, Firmenverzeichnis etc....
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DIG-L: BioEnergy 98 Conference [new window]
Summary: Is anyone planning to attend this conference from October 4-8? Are there any "must see" AD sites nearby (I have not had time yet to peruse the WWW site for details)? I am wondering
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IWR - Forschungsgruppe Bioenergie (Biodiesel, BHKW, ... [new window]
Summary: Aktuelle Informationen zur Bioenergie
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Alternative Energy...The way to go: Alternative Ene ... [new window]
Summary: Appropriate Technology for a Sustainable World. With over 4000 products since 1972, Jade Mountain specializes in the worldwide supply, design, sizing, ...
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Manure for production of biogas, Rodding, Denmark [new window]
Summary: Manure for production of biogas General information The Danish energy policy according biogas (CO2 policy) Reuse of organic waste from households for production of biogas.
http://www.stb-japan.com/dk/Rodding/energy_rodding.htm - (Excite, Yahoo)
Schmack Biogas [new window]
Summary: No Summary
http://www.schmack-biogas.com/ - (Yahoo)
Biogas Project [new window]
Summary: Biogas Project Biogas - Totally renewable fuel Biogas is refined from the gas produced naturally at rubbish dumps. Leeds City Council is interested in using this innovative form of fuel, as the Council operates a large landfill site which generates some 1500 cubic metres of gas per hour, which is currently flared or vented to the atmosphere.
http://www.leeds.gov.uk/lcc/highways/various/biogas.html - (Excite)
BerlinOnline: WISSENSCHAFT [new window]
Summary:  BerlinOnline-Schnellsuche Suchbegriff eingeben:                         Wissenschaftsarchiv  Wisse ...
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A Comprehensive Book on BioGas Technology: Power, C ... [new window]
Summary: A Comprehensive Manual on BioGas. Appropriate Technology for a Sustainable World. With over 4000 products since 1972, Jade Mountain specializes in the worldwide supply, design, sizing, installations, and trouble-shooting of Photovoltaic Solar, LP, Wind, Hydro, Water Power Systems, Water delivery, pumping and other environmentally friendly products. We also have an online...
http://www.jademountain.com/chinbio.html - (Excite)
Methane Digesters [new window]
Summary: Methane, Biogas, or Gobar Gas (Gobar is the Nepali term for manure) is made by the anaerobic (in the absence of oxygen) digestion of manure and plant life.
http://www.webconx.com/methane.htm - (Excite)
UK Landfill Gas Association - Information on landfi ... [new window]
Summary: Welcome to biogas.org.uk, the UK Landfill Gas Association website. ...Recovering clean, cheap, useful energy from our waste... Currently the waste methane produced by decomposing organic matter in landfill sites is used to generate enough electricity to power 350,000 households - or a city the size of Leeds.
http://www.biogas.org.uk/ - (Excite)
The Role of Biogas in Conserving Energy in Today's ... [new window]
Summary: Introduction: In today's energy conscious world, alternative forms of energy are becoming more and more important in deciding the future of the world's energy needs.
http://www2.msstate.edu/~mrs1/biogas.htm - (Excite)
The Role of Biogas in Conserving Energy in Today's ... [new window]
Summary: Introduction: In today's energy conscious world, alternative forms of energy are becoming more and more important in deciding the future of the world's energy needs.
http://www2.msstate.edu/~rah3/la_4435/sheppard.html - (Excite)
AT Information - Biogas Digest: Educational and tra ... [new window]
Summary: One of the essential elements in the implementation of a biogas program is the proper training of those to be responsible for planning, constructing, operating and repairing the plants.
http://gate.gtz.de/biogas/progimp/educatio.html - (Excite)
AT Information - Biogas Digest: Index [new window]
Summary: What is biogas? Biogas and the global carbon cycle Temperature range of anaerobic fermentation Minimal average temperature Changes in temperature Batch-type and continuous plants
http://gate.gtz.de/biogas/toc.html - (Excite)
AT Information - Biogas Digest: Biogas technology i ... [new window]
Summary: The first activities concerned with biogas date back to 1983. Within an agreement between the CDER (Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvellables) and the ORMVA (Office régionale de mise en Valeur Agricole) Haouz, three experts took part in a 20-day training course for biogas technology in China.
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Y2K BioGas Solutions - Morris Power Systems [new window]
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BIOGAS POTENTIAL AND IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES IN NEPAL [new window]
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http://meridian.uwaterloo.ca/~spokhare/abstr1.html - (Excite)
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http://meridian.uwaterloo.ca/~spokhare/abstr4.html - (Excite)
tilsley & lovatt - generating power - biogas genera ... [new window]
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http://www.tilsleyandlovatt.co.uk/ - (Excite)
A Complete list of books on: Biogas and Human Waste ... [new window]
Summary: Appropriate Technology for a Sustainable World.Jade Mountain offers many books relating to Hyro, Wind and Biogas issues. The topics range fromcontructing systems to understanding them. With over 4000 products since 1972, Jade Mountain specializes in the worldwidesupply, design, sizing, installations, and trouble-shooting of PhotovoltaicSolar, LP, Wind, Hydro, Water Power Systems, Water...
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Odour removal at biogas plants. [new window]
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http://www.bbk.dk/biogas.htm - (Excite)
Devel-L: Need Info About Biogas Digester [new window]
Summary: Vel J. Suminguit (mailto:antvjs@service1.uky.edu) Fri, 23 Jun 1995 10:02:31 -0400 Suminguit" <mailto:antvjs@service1.uky.edu> Subject: Need Info About Biogas Digester To: Multiple recipients of list DEVEL-L
http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devel-l/Jun1995/0123.html - (Excite)
AT Information - Biogas Digest: Biogas technology i ... [new window]
Summary: In May 1985 the Special Energy Programme Columbia located in Barranquilla began work. This resulted in the project concept "investigation of the possibilities of producing and using biogas" in the Valle de Cauca.
http://gate.gtz.de/biogas/reports/columbia.html - (Excite)
Energy in Herning, Denmark [new window]
Summary: The Danish energy policy according biogas (CO2 policy) Reuse of organic waste from households for production of biogas. Reuse of organic waste from enterprises for production of biogas
http://www.stb-japan.com/dk/Herning/energy_herning.htm - (Excite)
Biogas Production System [new window]
Summary: Project Manager: Roy Sharp, Livestock Systems Management An alternative energy generation technology was demonstrated through the installation of a 100 kilowatt (kW) covered lagoon biogas system at two commercial hog operations located in the central San Joaquin Valley.
http://www.energy.ca.gov/agprogram/AEAPTEXT/LIVESTOC/BIOGASS.HTM - (Excite)
Amazon.com - Query Results [new window]
Summary: Search Books Calling All Writers! Submissions accepted through March 24 33 items are shown below. Hall, P.N. Hobson / Hardcover / Published 1988 Our Price: $141.00 (Special Order) Read more about this title...
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/Subject=Biogas/ - (Excite)
Celtica Ambiente - Alternative energy sources [new window]
Summary: Celtica Ambiente is a global partner in the production of electrical energy from alternative sources, in ecology and in industrial cogeneration.
http://www.celtica-ambiente.com/pag-eng/fonti.htm - (Excite)
AHSt - ENTEC GmbH [new window]
Summary: The services provided by the firm ENTEC - Environmental Technology, Umwelttechnik GmbH embrace consultation, planning and equipping of plants for anaerobic and aerobic treatment of organic sewage, sludges and solid waste.
http://www.austria.org.tw/English/Entec.htm - (Excite)
Firmenporträt-Schmack Biogas GmbH [new window]
Summary: Tel. : +49 (0)9471.6040 Fax : +49 (0)9471.604204 Email : hotline@schmack-biogas.com Internet : http://www.schmack-biogas.com Patent of our different digester systems, Schmack Biowatch, SSM 5000 Co-operation with a Japanese trading company: Foundation of a Joint venture company since April 1999
http://www.bioregio-regensburg.de/partner/schmack_biogas.htm - (Excite)
BIOGAS - Paul Harris, The Uni of Adelaide [new window]
Summary: This is the beginning of some pages of information designed to assist anyone interested in biogas and anaerobic digestion. I hope to build the information over time, so suggestions/questions are welcome.
http://www.roseworthy.adelaide.edu.au/~pharris/methane/ - (Excite)
Austrian Trade Delegation [new window]
Summary: Entec GmbH The services provided by the firm ENTEC - Environmental Technology, Umwelttechnik GmbH embrace consultation, planning and equipping of plants for anaerobic and aerobic treatment of organic sewage, sludges and solid waste.
http://imperial.park.org/Guests/Taipei/English/Entec.htm - (Excite)
Abstract18(2)No.1 [new window]
Summary: J.of Soc of Agri Struc, Japan. Vol.18,No.2 December 1987,3-9 Original: Language: Japanese Knock-Suppression Effect and Performance in Biogas and Gasoline Fuelled Spark Ignition Engine
http://www.affrc.go.jp:8001/sasj/journal_e/abstract/p18_201e.html - (Excite)
BSDV : Presentation [new window]
Summary: Main office DOMESTIC WASTE DISPOSAL SITE The biogas generated by the decay of the organic matter in household refuse is a source of odour problem. It is also a hazard due to the presence of methane, which accounts for 60 % of the biogas composition, gas explosive in the air at a level between 5 and 15 %.
http://www.bsdv.com/english/presenta.html - (Excite)
Biamont - Home Page [new window]
Summary: His programs in Ecology and Enviromental Visit this useful link You are the visitor. Suction and combustion installations trade, Energy recovery, Monitoring systems by specific electronic data processing,
http://www.biamont.it/Ambiente/indexuk.htm - (Excite)
Swiss Biogas Forum [new window]
Summary: Swiss Biogas Forum
http://www.ad-nett.org/html/swiss_biogas_forum.html - (InfoSeek)
Biogas [new window]
Summary: Biogas Energie aus tierischen und pflanzlichen Reststoffen Foto: Biogasanlage der Landwirtschaftlichen Lehranstalten Triesdorf 1. Allgemeines auf einen Blick: Energiegewinnung: Biogas entsteht durch anaerobe Vergärung von tierischen und...
http://www.fh-weihenstephan.de/triesdorf/energie/biogas.htm - (Yahoo)
Umweltforum - Biogas Technik [new window]
Summary: technik. This page in English... Esta página en español ... Biogas home ... Biogaserzeugung. In Biogasanlagen lassen sich Gülle, Festmist,...
http://umwelt.imedia.de/biogas/BG_tec-dt.htm - (AltaVista)
WWW-LARCH-L Archive: landfill biogas vegetation rem ... [new window]
Summary: Frangoise Dinger (Francoise.Dinger@CEMAGREF.FR) Wed, 10 Apr 1996 05:56:50 -0400 Message-Id: <199604100956.FAA10516@listserv.syr.edu> Date: Wed, 10 Apr 1996 05:56:50 -0400 From: Frangoise Dinger <Francoise.Dinger@CEMAGREF.FR> Subject: landfill biogas vegetation remediation To: Multiple recipients of list LARCH-L <LARCH-L@LISTSERV.SYR.EDU>
http://www.clr.utoronto.ca:1080/ARCHIVES/HMAIL/larchl/0679.html - (Excite)
AT Information - Biogas Digest: Maintenance, monito ... [new window]
Summary: The maintenance of a biogas plant comprises all work which is necessary to guarantee trouble-free operation and a long working life of the plant. Repair reacts to breakdowns of the biogas system.
http://gate.gtz.de/biogas/appldev/operation/maintain.html - (Excite)
AT Information - Biogas Digest: Manure yield and nu ... [new window]
Summary: Total Wt.TSVSN Chicken (fresh droppings) Chicken (dry droppings) Chicken (fresh droppings) Chicken (dry droppings) Table B4: Annual manure yield and nutrient content of cow, pig and chicken excrements; compiled from various sources
http://gate.gtz.de/biogas/appldev/operation/tabslud.html - (Excite)
AT Information - Biogas Digest: Physical appearance ... [new window]
Summary: The three main types of simple biogas plants are shown in figure 1: More information about the different types of biogas plants is provided under digester types.
http://gate.gtz.de/biogas/basics/physappe.html - (Excite)
ABIRER-Systems sustainable eingineering solutions [new window]
Summary: ABIRER-Systems consulting for your environmental problems
http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~ug5b/index.html - (Excite)
New techniques for monitoring biogas processes [new window]
Summary: New techniques for monitoring biogas processes Background Most of the efforts aimed at establishing full-scale biogas plants in Sweden involve the co-digestion of various waste types.
http://www.jti.slu.se/jti/jtieng/biogaspr.htm - (Excite)
AT Information - Biogas Digest: Construction Details [new window]
Summary: This section provides detailed information on materials and devices used in the construction of biogas plants: GATE in GTZ GmbH, Eschborn, Germany.
http://gate.gtz.de/biogas/appldev/construct/construct.html - (Excite)
ad1 [new window]
Summary: The anaerobic digester (AD) at De Montfort University is integrated into a Hybrid Renewable Energy System. The AD is sized to produce sufficient biogas to fuel an internal combustion engine operating continuously at about 10kW.
http://www.dmu.ac.uk/ln/itc/ad.htm - (WebCrawler)
Energy Matters - Main Menu [new window]
Summary: Energy Matters was established as a world wide trading site for information on Energy, Fuels & Power Generation. *** Main Menu *** Free buy/sell/trade listings in the : Universal
http://www.thinkenergy.com/ - (LookSmart, WebCrawler)
Untitled [new window]
Summary: If you have favourite websites please let me know so they can appear here! These links, which are not a complete list and are randomly ordered, are provided as a service and have not been verified in any way.
http://www.roseworthy.adelaide.edu.au/~pharris/methane/links.html - (Excite)
Biothane Corporation; Anaerobic: Sulfothane: The Su ... [new window]
Summary: Developer of biological treatment systems for industrial wastewater, including anaerobic, aerobic and protein recovery systems, sulfur removal and water purification systems
http://www.biothane.com/sulfothane.html - (Excite)
Untitled [new window]
Summary: pp. 134-138 in Traditional Technology for Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Asian-Pacific Region Proceedings of the UNESCO - University of Tsukuba International Seminar on Traditional Technology for Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Asian-Pacific Region, held in Tsukuba Science City, Japan, 11-14 December, 1995.
http://www.mit.csu.edu.au/learning/eubios/TTEC/TTECEW.htm - (Excite)
Energy recovery from sewage slurry of abattoirs. [new window]
Summary: Project Information Title: Energy recovery from sewage slurry of abattoirs. Project Identification: Period: Contractant: Stork RMS BV / Stork Aqua BV ing.
http://www.biomasster.nl/english/projects/PE0115.html - (Excite)
Scania press release [new window]
Summary: 26 September 1997 At the turn of the year, Scania will deliver its first test truck operating on biogas. The buyer is the City of Stockholm. Scania is already a world leader in ethanol propulsion and this is yet another step to meet the increasing interest in alternative fuels.
http://www.scania.se/news/archive/wwwtxt/n97060en.htm - (Excite)
SFB 238: Project B9 [new window]
Summary: Principal investigator: Scientific co-worker: Period of project: Co-operation with other projects: The concept of a Biogas Tower Reactor is developed further.
http://www.vt1.tu-harburg.de/sfb238/B9e.html - (Excite)
Anaerobic Digestion [new window]
Summary: Anaerobic digestion is a biological process that produces a gas principally composed of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) otherwise known as biogas.
http://energy.ca.gov/development/biomass/anaerobic.html - (Excite)
Novem Magazine - Hungary [new window]
Summary: Novem contact persons Jord Neuteboom Gerard Smakman (EWAB) Fax +31 (0)30 2316 491 Hungary: Key facts and figures Where organic waste is dumped landfill gas is being formed.
http://novem.org/magazine/hungary.htm - (Excite)
Waste Digestion [new window]
Summary: This page is part of a beginners tour of BIOGAS. You can return to the index via the .button. There are a number of safety issues to be considered when working with a biogas system.
http://www.roseworthy.adelaide.edu.au/~pharris/biogas/safety.html - (Excite)
AT Information - Biogas Digest: Sizing the plant [new window]
Summary: The size of the biogas plant depends on the quantity, quality and kind of available biomass and on the digesting temperature. The following points should be considered
http://gate.gtz.de/biogas/appldev/planning/sizing.html - (Excite)
gate 2/96: Letters to the Editor [new window]
Summary: A gate-book by Ludwig Sasse about the construction of biogas operations has had some impact in Georgia. We quote from the Georgian journal "Tschemi Mamuli", December 1995.
http://gate.gtz.de/gate_mag/gate_96_2/texte/letters.html - (Excite)
Förderung Bund [new window]
Summary: Förderung für energiesparendes Bauen und die Nutzung regenerativer Energiequellen Nutzen Sie staatliche Zuschüsse 100 Millionen für sanfte Energien: Der Bund fördert den Bau von Anlagen, die ...
http://www.blue-print.ch/infoebu.htm - (InfoSeek)
IPCC Working Group II Home Page [new window]
Summary: Technology Transfer Case Studies in the Agriculture Sector List of Case Studies Last Updated on 24 August, 1998 1. Automated Agricultural Weather Data Network (USA) -- It was established in Nebraska, USA, in ...
http://www.usgcrp.gov/ipcc/html/agric.html - (InfoSeek)
Torsby kommun-miljö-miljövård-energi-biogas-användn ... [new window]
Summary: Användningsområden för biogas Biogas kan användas på samma sätt som naturgas, till värmeproduktion, elproduktion och drivmedel i fordon. Infrastruktuen som är uppbyggd för naturgas kan nyttjas nästan oförändrad även för biogas. Den största och...
http://www.torsby.se/miljo/Mjovard/Energi/Biogas/anvomr.htm - (Yahoo)
At GE Distributed Power, we offer diesel engines an ... [new window]
Summary: GE Distributed Power provides reciprocating generator-sets and co-generation systems with diesel engines, natural gas engines, and heavy fuel oil...
http://www.gedistributedpower.com/ - (AltaVista)
AgSTAR Home Page [new window]
Summary: The AgSTAR Program is a voluntary program jointly sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Agriculture, and the US Department of Energy.
http://epainotes1.rtpnc.epa.gov:7777/DC/methane/home.nsf/pages/ag star - (WebCrawler)
Lille, Biogas use in buses [new window]
Summary:   Abstract Lille has been developing during the last 20 years a policy to enhance the use of public transportation systems. More particularly since 1990 an urban programme has been on-going towards ...
http://www.eltis.org/data/93e.htm - (InfoSeek)
ITC CHP [new window]
Summary: Combined Heat and Power Small Scale CHP. Virtually all electrical power is produced by a generator driven by some form of heat engine. In conventional electricity generating plant approximately 65% of the initial primary energy input is rejected.
http://www.dmu.ac.uk/ln/itc/chp.htm - (WebCrawler)
The Folkecentre for Renewable Energy  [new window]
Summary: The Folkecenter for Renewable Energy is an independent, non-governmental organization. It was established in 1983 to pave the way for renewable energy by developing, testing, and demonstrating technologies which are designed for manufacturing in small and medium scale industries.
http://www.folkecenter.dk/ - (WebCrawler, AltaVista)
Biogas Firmenliste [new window]
Summary: Anlagenherstellung (Komplettanlagen) Komponentenherstellung und -lieferung Blockheizkraftwerke Handwerksbetriebe Sonstige Hinweise zum Eintrag in die Liste Anlagenherstellung (Komplettanlagen)   AQUA-TEK ...
http://www.biogas-info.de/Firmen/index.html - (InfoSeek)
Biofilter, Biofilteranlagen und Biogasanlagen von d ... [new window]
Summary: Biofilter, Biofilteranlagen und Biogasgasanlagen von der bioteg GmbH in Kulmbach
http://www.bioteg.de/ - (WebCrawler)
Renewable Energy Provides Y2K Back-Up For Wastewate ... [new window]
Summary: Enter your e-mail: Renewable Energy Provides Y2K Back-Up For Metro Area's Main Wastewater Treatment Plant DENVER, Nov. 1 -/E-Wire/-- A successful test last week of a renewable energy-fueled electric power back-up system has lead the major wastewater treatment agency for the metro Denver area to conclude that sufficient power will be available for critical functions in the event of a Y2K...
http://ens.lycos.com/e-wire/Nov99/01Nov9904.html - (WebCrawler)
Ribe Biogas [new window]
Summary: Primary tanks:              2, each of 680 m³ Dosing tank:                 1 ...
http://www.kruger.dk/doc/References/ribebio.htm - (InfoSeek)
Der schneckensammelnde Roboter [new window]
Summary: Der informative Online-Dienst mit minütlichen Nachrichten, Wetter, interaktiver Unterhaltung, Chat, Forum, Anzeigendatenbank u.v.m.
http://www.vienna.at/tmh/zr/national/computer/news-31221.asp - (WebCrawler)
NGVeurope - An Overview [new window]
Summary: Natural Gas Vehicles (NGVs) have been used in Europe since World War II. Today there are about 368,500 NGVs in Europe, with the vast majority (290,000) in Italy and about 75,000 in Russia, leaving only about 3,500 in the remaining countries.
http://www.snafu.de/~innotec/NGVeurope/general.htm - (WebCrawler)
Cirmac H2 [new window]
Summary: H2S Removal BY MEANS OFGas Absorption membranes Gas absorption using membranes is a separation technique which was developed fairly recently. The essential element in the process is a microporous hydrophobic membrane as a result of which te gas phase remains separated from the liquid absorbent.
http://www.cirmac.com/removal.htm - (WebCrawler)
Rbep Maps [new window]
Summary: The documents below are in the portable document format (PDF) and can be viewed using Adobe Acrobat Reader. If you have the Adobe Acrobat Reader installed, select a document to view.
http://rredc.nrel.gov/biomass/doe/rbep/maps/rbep_db/ - (WebCrawler)
Press Review [new window]
Summary: "On the Road with Natural Gas" (available in English, German, French and Dutch) Bo Nordbeck: "Unikt projekt med potatisgas-bilar", in: Sydsvenskan, 18.8.1998 (Swedish only)
http://www.snafu.de/~innotec/NGVeurope/press.htm - (WebCrawler)
Innovative Technology Centre [new window]
Summary: Innovative Technology Centre conduct research work into Anaerobic Digestion, Gasification, Waste managment, CHP and Biomass. On site they operate an AD, gasifier and wind turbine in a Hybrid Energy System
http://www.dmu.ac.uk/ln/itc/ - (WebCrawler)
Bioenergy Glossary [new window]
Summary: Oregon Department of Energy 625 Marion Street NE Salem, OR 97310 Edition Date: 11/24/95 The Bioenergy Glossary, published by the Oregon Department of Energy, is a useful compendium of more than 600 technical terms.
http://rredc.nrel.gov/biomass/states/bio_glossary/ - (WebCrawler)
Company profile [new window]
Summary: BBK bio airclean A/S was founded in 1992 with the object of developing and producing an environmentally-friendly, biological air cleaning method which efficiently converts odour polluted air to water and CO2.
http://www.bbk.dk/company.htm - (WebCrawler)
hes [new window]
Summary: Innovative Technology Centre. Hybrid Energy Systems. De Montfort University, School of Agriculture. The Hybrid Energy System Project. Three of the most generally available sources of renewable energy are wind, biogas from animal or vegetable waste, and biomass produced from short rotation coppiced wood.
http://www.dmu.ac.uk/ln/itc/hes.htm - (WebCrawler)
Odour removal at sewage treatment plants [new window]
Summary: Sewage treatment plants do often have problems with unpleasant odours coming from the open basins, where the waste water is treated. The odour can be described as smell of drain/rotten eggs and it can be removed with good results in a BBK-biofilter.
http://www.bbk.dk/sewagethtm.htm - (WebCrawler)
Fundación CIPAV / CIPAV Foundation Home Page [new window]
Summary: Fundación CIPAV is a Colombian NGO founded in 1986. The projects and programs on which it focuses are alternative agricultural production systems. In these systems we promote the efficient and sustainable utilization of the available human and natural resources, which are in harmony with the environment.
http://www.cipav.org.co/ - (WebCrawler)
AT Information - Biogas Digest: Information and pub ... [new window]
Summary: The biogas concept must be promoted at national, regional and communal levels. The basic prerequisite for successful, comprehensive introduction of biogas technology is the ...
http://gate.gtz.de/biogas/progimp/campaign.html - (InfoSeek)
DFA/Energy Management Office Home Page [new window]
Summary: The Energy Management Office (EMO) provides service and assistance to other city departments and organizations by developing innovative and practical approaches to energy management.
http://www.cabq.gov/dfa/energy/index.html - (WebCrawler)
Odour removal at animal rendering plants [new window]
Summary: Animal rendering is one of our main fields of activity, as it is possible for our filters to clean the air to such a degree that you cannot detect the typical "rendering" smell from the plant.
http://www.bbk.dk/odour2.htm - (WebCrawler)
Animal Housing Systems [new window]
Summary: If you find you cannot read or download the above fact sheets, please go back to the Extension page and request a hard copy be sent to you via surface mail.
http://server.age.psu.edu/dept/extension/Factsheets/g/ - (WebCrawler)
Dansk resumé [new window]
Summary: BBK bio airclean A/S markedsfører, projekterer, producerer og vedligeholder biologiske filterløsninger i alle størrelser. Et BBK-biofilter er et miljøvenligt produkt:
http://www.bbk.dk/dansk.htm - (WebCrawler)
Amazon.com: A Glance: Anaerobic Digestion - Results ... [new window]
Summary: at a glance Look for similar books by subject: I have read this book, and I want to review it. I am the Author, and I want to comment on my book.
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=1851660275/grassrootssuppo rA/ - (WebCrawler)
Rural Development: Effects on the Community [new window]
Summary: Philippine Climate Change Information Center Page
http://www.ccic.ateneo.net/NRE_Phil/effects.htm - (InfoSeek)
Bioenergy Mailing List Archive: Re: proposed biogas ... [new window]
Summary: Re: proposed biogas plant Matti Pellinen (pellinen@vipunen.hut.fi) Fri, 10 Nov 1995 16:50:03 +0200 Messages sorted by: [ date ][ thread ][ subject ][ author ] Next message: Andy Olsen: "Re: proposed biogas plant" Previous message: J.M.A. Nijssen: .
http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/bioenergy-list-archive.old/0 732.html - (Yahoo)
Umweltforum - Biogas Region [new window]
Summary: region. Diese Seite in Deutsch ... Esta página en español ... Biogas home. Welcome to the BIOGAS region site. Here you will find highlighted the...
http://umwelt.imedia.de/biogas/BG_reg-en.htm - (AltaVista)
OTTI - Energetische Nutzung von Pflanzenöl und ... [new window]
Summary: Mittwoch, 24. November 1999 von 09.30 bis 18.00 Uhr Veranstaltungsort: Kloster Banz, Staffelstein Bildungszentrum der Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung e.V. 96231 Staffelstein Organisation: ...
http://www.otti.de/fuchssteiner/apb504.html - (InfoSeek)
Haase Gastechnik: Gasbehandlung, Gasreinigung, Gase ... [new window]
Summary: Haase Energietechnik behandelt schadstoffbelastete Gase gemäß TA-Luft und nutzt Biogas, Deponiegas, Klärgas zur Energieerzeugung.
http://www.haase-energietechnik.de/Unternehmensbereiche/Gastechni k/Gas... - (InfoSeek)
Biogas [new window]
Summary: "At Biogas Technology we have many years experience dedicated to providing a comprehensive and totally professional service to the landfill industry. Through quality and innovation we contribute to higher standards of landfill management and...
http://www.biogas.co.uk/ - (Yahoo)
Länkar - JTI [new window]
Summary: Länkar till JTI:s intressentföretag i Stiftelsen Jordbruks- och Miljöteknisk Forskning. AGCO AB. Agria Försäkringar. AB Akron-maskiner. Alfa Laval...
http://www.jti.slu.se/lankar.htm - (AltaVista)
Biogas [new window]
Summary: Fachbeitrag zum Thema incl. aktueller News, ausführlicher Grundlagen, Termine, Adressen, Statistiken, weiterführender Links etc. UNSERE WERBE PARTNER Fachliteratur Tagesmeldungen
http://www.boxer99.de/biogas.htm - (LookSmart, InfoSeek)
Beginners Guide to BIOGAS - Paul Harris, The Univer ... [new window]
Summary: If you are new to biogas/biofuel and anaerobic digestion for waste treatment these pages are intended to assist you. If you only need some simple information the first ...
http://www.roseworthy.adelaide.edu.au/~pharris/biogas/beginners - (InfoSeek)
Biogas Gruppe Soltau arbeitet im Verbund mit 20 Anlagen [new window]
Summary:   Es liegt etwas in der Landluft. Es ist nicht der typische Güllegestank, obgleich die Geruchsquelle schon etwas mit Gülle zu tun hat. „In diesem Betonbecken läuft ...
http://www.wind-energie.de/ne/0999/4.html - (InfoSeek)
A Complete list of books on: Biogas and Human Waste ... [new window]
Summary: Appropriate Technology for a Sustainable World. Jade Mountain offers many books relating to Hyro, Wind and Biogas issues. The topics range from contructing systems to understanding them. With over 4000 products since 1972, Jade Mountain specializes
http://www.jademountain.com/booksVideos/bksBiogas.html - (Yahoo)
Haase Energietechnik GmbH [Absorption Chiller Plant ... [new window]
Summary: In the field of environmental engineering, Haase Energietechnik is specialized in plant construction and offers a wide range of services. Activities...
http://www.haase-energietechnik.de/ - (AltaVista)
Holsworthy BIOGAS [new window]
Summary: Plans are now well advanced to build the first British Biogas plant near the small Devonshire market town of Holsworthy. The plant will be up and running by the Spring of the year 2000. Biogas plants are one of the ...
http://www.ntbn.co.uk/news/Biogas.htm - (InfoSeek)
Danish Export Group Association - Denmark [new window]
Summary: Danish suppliers of equipment for marine, district heating, energy, fishing, rehabilitation, naval waste technology and garden....
http://www.dega.dk/ - (AltaVista)
EG:Resources:System approach to biogas [new window]
Summary: from "Biogas technology: a training manual for extension" (FAO/CMS, 1996) - see also Introduction Components of a biogas system Biogas technology is a complete system in
http://www.fao.org/waicent/faoinfo/sustdev/EGdirect/... - (LookSmart)
Yttrande över "Biogas som fordonsbränsle" (SOU 1998 ... [new window]
Summary: Yttrande över "Biogas som fordonsbränsle" (SOU 1998:157) 1999-06-04         Näringsdepartementet 103 33 Stockholm           ...
http://www.gronabilister.com/remiss/sou98157.htm - (InfoSeek)
Biogas Scrubber for Hydrogen Sulphide [new window]
Summary: OCETA Environmental Technology Profile Biogas Scrubber for Hydrogen Sulphide Full-Scale Demonstration Level* PROCESS/PRODUCT DESCRIPTION: hydrogen sulphide biogas scrubber Hydrogen sulphide is ...
http://oceta.on.ca/profiles/apollo/scrubber.html - (InfoSeek)
Utilización del biogas para generación de electricidad [new window]
Summary: No Summary
http://www.cipav.org.co/resrch/energy/ialvaro1.htm - (Yahoo)
Gas Bags for Biogas storage [new window]
Summary: Gas bags for the storage of biogas from anaerobic digesters and landfill sites...
http://www.froudeconsine.co.uk/town/terrace/ae198/GasBags.html - (AltaVista)
Klärfex - Kläranlagen, Biogas, Kompostierung, Klärs ... [new window]
Summary: Naturprodukte aus Naturfaser steigert die Biogasausbeute verbessert die Preßeigenschaften ermöglicht die Kompostierung Das neue an KLÄRfex ist... ..reine Naturfaser ...
http://www.tncaustria.com/fex/klaerfex.htm - (InfoSeek)
ENVITEC Pretreatment of source separeted household ... [new window]
Summary: ENVITEC, Pretreatment of source separeted household waste...
http://www.envitec.dk/ - (AltaVista)
Re: DIG-L: BIOGAS HAND BOOK [new window]
Summary: On behalf of Dave Stephenson, this is a request for the publication "Handbook of Biogas Utilization, Second Edition", published by the Southeast Regional Biomass Energy Program
http://www.crest.org/renewables/digestion-list-archi... - (LookSmart)
Biogas [new window]
Summary: Biogasen är det biologiska bränslealternativ som verkar vara mest intressant för tillfället. Biogas består av 50—65% metan, 30—40% av koldioxid och 0-5% av vattenånga, svavelväte m m och måste renas till en ...
http://www.skanetrafiken.skane.se/Lanstrafm/biogas.asp - (InfoSeek)
Umweltforum - Energía y Materiales Recuperables: Biogas [new window]
Summary: Biogas - Fuente de Información
http://www.energie-umwelt.de/biogas/BG_home-es.htm - (InfoSeek)
Biogas! [new window]
Summary: SOFTplus Entwicklungen GmbH       Weiter mit ...     Biogas! Mit dem Programm Biogas ! können Sie sehr schnell und einfach Biogasanlagen auslegen. Nachdem Sie Angaben zum Standort und Substrat ...
http://www.softplus.net/industrie/biogas/index.htm - (InfoSeek)
estudio de plantas de biogas [new window]
Summary: estudio de plantas de biogas [ Respuesta ] [ Enviar respuesta ] [ Tablón de anuncios de Casa Verde 97 ] [ FAQ ] Enviado por Hernan González Olivares el 26 de Abril de 1998 a las 22:07:14: Hola, soy estudiante de quimica analitica y necesito...
http://www.pixel24.com/casaverde/tablon/messages/441.html - (Yahoo)
TUHH AWS Landfilling of Waste: Biogas [new window]
Summary: Landfilling of Waste: Biogas, First Edition. Chapman & Hall. T.H. Christensen, Department of Environmental Engineering, Lyngby Denmark R. Cossu,...
http://www.tu-harburg.de/aws/biogas-b.html - (AltaVista)
BUNDSCHUH-BIOGAS-Gruppe (BBG) e.V. im EUROSOLAR-Net ... [new window]
Summary: Zirler Weg 55 71522 Backnang Fax: 07191 / 87153 Arbeitsbereich: Biomasse Biogas Am 17.5.91 in Stuttgart gegründet; z.Zt. 7 Mitglieder. 1. Vorsitzender: Dieter Spielberg, Backnang. Der ...
http://www.eurosolar.org/netzwerk/bundschuh.html - (InfoSeek)
Biodigester, biogas [new window]
Summary: Date Previous | Thread Previous | Thread Next | Date Next Biodigester, biogas To: Ecobalance list <ecobalance@lists.gaia.org> Date: Tue, 7 Jul 1998 07:33:13 +0200 Hello group, I was wondering if anyone could offer any info or resources for aquiring.
http://csf.colorado.edu/archive/1998/balance/msg00697.html - (Yahoo)
Nature-friendly Experimental House [new window]
Summary: ú–{Œê”Å. Welcome to the Nature-friendly Experimental House. -Kaiwaka by the Mountain Brook, Northland, NZ. Yoshimasa Sakurai and Co-workers. Let's...
http://www.ecohouse.co.nz/ - (AltaVista)
Biogás e biofertilizantes [new window]
Summary:             O   s docentes que atuam nesta área de trabalho desenvolvem  pesquisas  e prestam consultorias relativas aos seguintes ...
http://www.fca.unesp.br/pgenergia/lp05.htm - (InfoSeek)
Entwicklung [new window]
Summary:       itron unterhält Kontakte zur Biogasgruppe Soltau. Gemeinsam mit den Betreibern haben wir über elektronische Lösungen zur Optimierung von Biogasanlagen nachgedacht. Aber was ist Biogas? ...
http://www.itron.de/deutsch/Biogas.htm - (InfoSeek)
Biogas process [new window]
Summary: The biogas process Decomposition (digestion) of organic matter in an oxygen-free (anaerobic) environment leads to formation of biogas (methane and carbon dioxide). This process offers an attractive alternative of handling organic waste since most...
http://www.mikrob.slu.se/avfall/english/biogase.htm - (Yahoo)
Biogas Recovery and Use [new window]
Summary: STEERING COUNCIL. STATE PROGRAM MANAGERS. PUBLICATIONS. PROJECTS. REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS. MAIL. BIOMASS HOMEPAGE. CGLG HOMEPAGE. Biogas Recovery and...
http://www.cglg.org/projects/biomass/biogas.html - (AltaVista)
Umweltforum - Renewable Energy and Materials: Biogas [new window]
Summary: language selection   Do you prefer English? Bevorzugen Sie Deutsch? Prefiere español? zurück zu/ back to: Umweltforum      Any comment concerning biogas or ...
http://umwelt.imedia.de/biogas/bg_ls.htm - (InfoSeek)
Markt        &nb ... [new window]
  Summary:    Markt Potenzial der Elektrizitätsproduktion pro Jahr 10 Prozent Strom aus WKK Wärmekraftkopplungsanlagen könnten im Jahre 2010 mit einer ...
http://www.waermekraftkopplung.ch/markt/potential.htm - (InfoSeek)

 

 

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